Digital Scholarship Fellows have created several tutorials that will review what we covered in class on April 7.
Using WordPress (creating a post, using the block editor)
Writing for the Web (best practices for writing online)
Adding attributions for media (adding captions and giving credit for embedded media)
Finding Images (finding images in the public domain and linking)
Accessibility (using alt text for images, headers, etc.)
Creating accessible links (avoiding using "click here" or other text without context)
If you've used WordPress before, there is a new editor called the Gutenberg (or Block) editor. By default, the class WordPress site uses the Gutenberg/Block editor. If you have used WordPress in the past and are more comfortable using the Classic editor, then from the WordPress Dashboard, click on Profile, switch to Classic Editor, then click Update Profile.
The same process works for Pages, just select Pages in the Dashboard instead.
When editing a Post pr Page, the right-hand side of the screen will switch between Document and Block tabs. The Document tab affects the entire Post, the Block tab only affects the Block you are currently working on.
Everyone in the class shares the Media Library for the entire WordPress site. To add images to the media library, you will either need to have the image saved to your computer.
Once you've added an image to the page, you can set the alignment of the image (left, center, right, none) or click on the pencil icon to go into the editing mode. You can change the size of the image, or add a caption here. You can also drag the edges of the image to adjust its size.
Three good rules to follow:
Copyright is a legal concept that protects the rights of authors/creators and their work from being used/copied without permission. It also protects the rights of those who want to use someone else’s work under the concept of Fair Use. In brief, you must have permission to use what belongs to someone else in certain circumstances, such as publishing.
Unlike using images in a paper that only your professor sees, when locating images for use in a digital project, you have to take into account that the general public will have access to the site. In order to respect copyright laws and the rights of creators, the general rule is that for any images published after 1922, you must get the copyright holder's permission. However, if the author has released their work under a license, such as a Creative Commons license, then there is more flexibility in using images for digital projects.
Essentially, Creative Commons (CC) licenses are a way to license copyrighted works, meaning that the author is giving permission to use their work in certain ways. There are CC licenses that put a work in the public domain, and some that say you just have to cite the author, and others that say you can remix and remake, as well as determine if you can make money off of their work. The most common CC license is CC-BY, meaning that if you use the material, you have to give credit to the original author. A full list of licenses is available on the Creative Commons website.
It's not enough to just find images that you have the rights to, but you also need to find images that are high enough quality that they will look good.
Never do a Google Image Search, click on an image, and then save the image or link to it that way. ALWAYS click View Image to get to the actual image, otherwise you may end up with a link that doesn't work, or an image that is too small.
A link to an image from a website has to end with one of the following to work properly:
If your link doesn't end with this, then the link has been set up to prevent people from downloading images from their website.
When doing a Google Image Search, you can click on Tools, then Size, then select Large to find images that will be of higher quality.
When creating something that is online, there are 2 options to add images to a website: adding a link to an image, or uploading an image. If you add a link to an image, you are usually taking a link you found via a search and copying and pasting the link; this is called hotlinking. This method has the advantage of letting users click on the image, and be taken to where the image was originally found, so the original creator of the image is connected to it. However, if the website takes down that image, you have a broken link, and it will no longer show up on your website. Hotlinking is generally frowned upon unless the creator of the media has given permission, and some websites are programmed to prevent this behavior. It is probably not a copyright violation, but it can be considered rude.
If you download an image from one site and upload it to your own, you have the advantage of making sure it stays up on your website; however, doing so implies that you have the right to use that image however you want. So if you are downloading images and uploading them to your own site, then you need to make sure that the image is either in the Public Domain (published before 1927), or you have permission from the image creator, or that there is an appropriate license (such as Creative Commons) that gives you the right to do so.
While attribution and citation are often used interchangeably, they have subtle differences. Attribution is usually more focused on giving credit to the source of images, texts, ideas, etc., while citation is more focused on helping scholars trace back ideas through their development in various scholarly and primary resources. There is no single way to provide attribution, while citations have specific requirements and structure depending on the style guide you are using. Both are acknowledging that someone else contributed content that you are using in your material.
There are best practices for giving attribution for materials you find online. This is different than citing a source in a bibliography or works cited. There is no correct way to attribute, but there are better ways than others. Ideally, in a digital project, if you are using something you found online, such as an image, video, audio, or text, the following elements are crucial: title, author, source, and license, collectively known as TASL.
It is usually best to include the attribution in the caption for media, if that is available. For example:
Sometimes finding information for attributions is easy, other times it can be a bit tricky. It depends on the website where the original media was hosted. Some websites, like Flickr and Wikimedia Commons make it easy. Other times, you just have to use your best judgment. The most important piece of information is the Source part of the attribution, so a user can trace back to where you found it.
Images that you have taken yourself and uploaded directly to a project can be handled as easily as:
Photo by Abraham Lincoln (Own work)
If you put the image on Flickr or another online repository, or added a Creative Commons license, you can treat it like any other image. Adding a title to the image may help identify it.
Considering accessibility for different users of your site means that it will be accessible to as many people as possible from the start.
Use Boolean operators to connect search terms and expand or limit your searches.
Put quotation marks around words to perform a phrase search that will only retrieve results that contain the exact phrase somewhere in the text or in the metadata.
housing crisis will retrieve more results than "housing crisis" but will also contain results where the two search terms are not in close proximity to each other
Truncate search terms by using a wildcard symbol like the asterisk (*) to find similar or related terms easily.
For example, a search for educat* will return results that contain education, educational, educate, educated, educators, etc.
Google site searches help you eliminate noise from your Google searches by only retrieving results from a particular website or top-level domain.
A Google search for site:epa.gov "renewable energy" will only show hits that appear on the Environmental Protection Agency's website
Citation and proper attribution of sources rest at the core of academic research. Musselman Library provides a to the major citation styles with links to helpful resources online. For this class you will be formatting your citations using the MLA Handbook.